How Many Books are in the Bible? A Look at the Canonical Texts

How Many Books are in the Bible depends on the specific Christian tradition, as the number of canonical books varies between Protestant, Roman Catholic, and Eastern Orthodox versions. 

Let us explore the number of books in the Bible, focusing on the variations between different Christian traditions and the reasons behind these differences.

Number of Books in the Tanakh

The Tanakh, also known as the Hebrew Bible, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is the textual source for the Christian Old Testament. 

It is made up of 24 books, divided into three parts: Torah (Law), Nevi'im (Prophets), and Ketuvim (Writings). The Torah contains five books, the Nevi'im contains eight, and the Ketuvim contains eleven.

Number of Books in the Catholic Bible

The Catholic Bible consists of 73 books: 46 in the Old Testament and 27 in the New Testament. 

The Old Testament includes all the books found in the Tanakh (however, they are divided differently to make a total of 46 instead of 24), along with seven additional books (Tobit, Judith, Wisdom, Sirach, Baruch, and First and Second Maccabees) and additional passages in the books of Daniel and Esther. 

These extra texts are collectively known as Deuterocanonical books.

Number of books in the Eastern Orthodox Bible

The Eastern Orthodox Bible includes 76 books: 49 in the Old Testament and 27 in the New Testament.

 It encompasses all the books in the Catholic Old Testament, with three additional texts: Psalm 151, the Prayer of Manasseh, and 3 Maccabees. 

Some Eastern Orthodox Bibles also include 4 Maccabees as an appendix.

Number of Books in the Protestant Bible

The Protestant Bible consists of 66 books: 39 in the Old Testament and 27 in the New Testament. 

The Old Testament of the Protestant Bible corresponds to the books of the Tanakh but is divided differently to make a total of 39 instead of 24.

Why Variations in the Number of Books?

The variation in the number of books across different traditions primarily lies in the Old Testament and revolves around the acceptance of the Deuterocanonical books (also known as Apocrypha). 

The term "Deuterocanonical" translates to "second canon" and refers to the books and passages that are included in the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Bibles but excluded from the Jewish Tanakh and the Protestant Old Testament. 

The Deuterocanonical books were written in the intertestamental period, a time between the writing of the last book of the Jewish scriptures (Malachi) and the arrival of Jesus Christ. 

These texts are largely written in Greek, not Hebrew, and were included in the Septuagint, a Greek translation of the Hebrew Scriptures widely used in the early Christian Church. 

Protestants exclude these books from their canon mainly because of their absence from the Hebrew Bible and because they believe that there are internal and doctrinal issues but they respect these texts for their historical value. 

The Catholic Church, at the Council of Trent (1546), affirmed the canonicity of the Deuterocanonical books, asserting their spiritual value and usefulness. 

The Eastern Orthodox Church, while including these and a few additional texts, does not hold a definitive, closed canon, and there is some variation within this tradition about which books are considered canonical.

Varying Numbers but Unifying Theme

Although the number of books in the Bible varies from tradition to tradition, what remains consistent is the centrality of the Scriptures as the inspired Word of God, providing guidance, wisdom, and revelation. 

Understanding these differences not only helps enhance our respect for diverse Christian traditions, but also enriches our grasp of the historical and cultural contexts of the Bible. 

It is essential to remember that, despite the variations in the number of books, all Christians acknowledge the authority of the 39 books of the Old Testament as represented in the Protestant Bible and the 27 books of the New Testament. 

These texts serve as the foundation for Christian beliefs and practices, charting the story of God's relationship with humanity, the life and teachings of Jesus Christ, and the growth of the early Christian church. 

Regardless of one's tradition, the Bible remains a profound source of spiritual wisdom, moral guidance, and insight into the nature of God.


It is crucial to engage with the Bible not merely as a collection of individual books but as a cohesive narrative of God's redemptive work. 

From the Genesis account of creation to the apocalyptic visions in Revelation, the Bible offers an overarching story of God's unceasing love and mercy, His justice and righteousness, and His desire for reconciliation with humanity. 

This shared narrative binds Christians together across traditions, forming a unity that transcends differences in the canon.

"Let the word of Christ dwell in you richly in all wisdom; teaching and admonishing one another in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing with grace in your hearts to the Lord." - Colossians 3:16 (KJV).


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